Another example of the regulation of seizure susceptibility by perinatal gonadal hormones is the emergence of sexual dimorphism in the substantia nigra during early postnatal life in the rodent, discussed elsewhere in this Special issue Giorgi et al. Sex differences in seizures and epilepsy support this idea. If one study includes a large proportion of subjects with IGE, sex differences might be large, but if another study does not, reported differences could be less obvious.
These data underscore the importance of controlling behavioral stress in studies of seizure susceptibility in rodents and suggest that behavioral stress may be one factor that has led to inconsistencies in outcomes of sex differences research. Gender refers to the sexual preference of humans which is typically consistent with biological sex men with male gonads and other male reproductive organs vs. If one study includes a large proportion of subjects with IGE, sex differences might be large, but if another study does not, reported differences could be less obvious.
Here we discuss several reasons why sex differences in seizure susceptibility are unclear or are difficult to study. However, sex differences are less clear.
Other characteristics of clinical epilepsy besides epidemiology make a better case that sex differences exist. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Neurobiol Dis See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described.
Most investigators relate sex differences in epilepsy to actions of estrogens, progestins and androgens. Pooling subjects with different types of epilepsy and different causes of epilepsy is also likely to contribute to inconsistencies from one study to the next. Other characteristics of clinical epilepsy besides epidemiology make a better case that sex differences exist.
This framework for explaining sex differences in the brain and behavior provides potential explanations for sex differences in epilepsy. Sex differences in epilepsy in laboratory animals are also unclear, although robust effects of sex on seizures have been reported, and numerous effects of gonadal steroids have been shown throughout the rodent brain. We also describe a novel method that has shed light on sex differences in neuropathology, which is a relatively new techniques that will potentially contribute to sex differences research in the future.
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Examples of robust sex differences in laboratory rats, such as the relative resistance of adult female rats to the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine compared to males, are described. This framework for explaining sex differences in the brain and behavior provides potential explanations for sex differences in epilepsy. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described.
Below, we address preclinical data in rodents, provide examples of sex differences, and discuss the difficulties in clarifying sex differences. In females, weak NeuN expression defines a sex difference that previous neuropathological studies have not described.
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